Therapies, shamans and soothsayers
No disease is considered as being natural. It may have been caused by a rupture of harmony or caused by a demonic spirit or a witch. The shaman uses prayer, dance and trance, songs for healing. The shaman is a person who is "owned ", that gives him it his power, his ability to heal, predict the future, make objects of power and intervene in the demonic worlds.
A man becomes a shaman, after an illness, a crisis of adolescence. Dreams, hallucinations, fits of madness of the future shaman is understood by him as a sign sent by a spirit who wish to become his guide. The future shaman then goes in the forest to discover the spirit who is calling him. Then the future shaman becomes the student of an accomplished shaman who becomes his teacher.
Here it is useful to make a clarification. In the country where live the Khas, from Indo-European origin, in the west of Nepal in the valley of the Karnali, the shaman of the eastern hills medium is replaced by a character performing the same type of functions but who is rather a seer or medium, intermediate between gods and men, who officiates without drum or ceremonial dagger phurba. While the shaman travels, the diviner is attached to a specific mythical deity and therefore fixed to a sanctuary. As the shaman, the diviner's role is to identify the origin of evil that affects the person who consults him. The difference is that the diviner is not going to cure from the person himself as the shaman. He goes into a trance with his divinity that tells him what to do. This is often the execution of a votive statue to be placed in a temple or other place.