Large settlements of Nepal.
We can define three zones from south to north with ethnic languages, backgrounds and different religions that coexist harmoniously with a common denominator the shamanism which is rooted in the prehistory:
* The Terai plain under the direct influence of Hinduism in the valley of the Gange.
* The area of hills and highlands (Middle Hills) with two poles, one in the western in the basin of Kanali wheres live Khas people, the other is East with the tributes related to Kirant.
- Indeed in the east lives a population whose roots are common to all peoples of the old Asia, Mongolia type and language thibeto-Burmese belonging to the sphere of influence "Kirant”. This population has managed to preserve until the 20th century beliefs and lifestyles with a very pure traditional practice of shamans. The east has its own identity even more ancient and pure Mongolian type and with thibeto-Burmese language with the (Kiranti, Rai, Limbu), which gradually settled to the west in Gurung and Tamang, with finally the Magar and thus extended their sphere of influence.
- To the west, in the Karnali basin, the Khas from Indo-European origin, have also retained traditional beliefs and practices under a veneer of Hinduism.
- At the east center of this area is the valley of Kathmandu, Nepal's historic heart. In the valley of Kathmandu live Newar people rather Hindu or Buddhist but who have still characteristics of the old culture Kirant.
* The high mountains inhabited by tribes very impregnated with Tibetan culture.
The intermixing of populations have been such over the past centuries that there is no region of Nepal inhabited by a particular race. The original culture of tribal groups is difficult to define as they are the result of successive mixtures. The oldest tribal masks, several centuries old, were created in a social contest, cultural and religious very different from what it is today. These masks have sometimes changed of use during the various cultural influences including Buddhist and Hindu. Little information has been collected on these last one, contrary to everything that is from Tibetan and Indian cultures. This is due to several factors including the fall of practices and the loss of sense that followed it but also to the fact that the ceremonies in which masks were used were the kind of a private family, even secretive.
It is, therefore, often difficult to assign a mask, a statue or object to a particular race.